SATuRN and BioAfrica open access reports:

Here we provide you with sections from our open access annual reports, which are directed at public health practitioners, policies makers, doctors, researchers and the general public.
The objective of these reports is to present the key aspects of our work in an accessible, summarized format. The majority of the work presented has been published in peer-reviewed publications and can be seen in the publications section of

Deep sequencing shed light on low levels of PI resistance in patients with poor adherence

Authors: Gert van Zyl & Wolfgang Preiser

Cape Town, South Africa, 2012. A team from Division of Medical Virology, Stellenbosch University, University of Western Cape and University of California, San Diego performed deep sequencing and analysed results from 7 South African patients who failed a second-line lopinavir/ritonavir based regimen. Standard sequencing revealed no protease inhibitor (PI) resistance, but deep sequencing revealed low abundance PI resistant HIV variants in 5 of 7 patients, which probably does not emerge to become predominant due to inadequate drug pressure, in the setting of inadequate adherence.

This work may help to explain the higher probability of PI resistance in patients with intermediate to high levels of adherence. [Epublished in Journal of Virology, 28 March 2012]


SATuRN's Featured Partner: The Division of Medical Virology, Stellenbosch University

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