Publication

Title: Predicted antiviral activity of tenofovir versus abacavir in combination with a cytosine analogue and the integrase inhibitor dolutegravir in HIV-1-infected South African patients initiating or failing first-line ART
Authors: Derache A, Iwuji CC, Danaviah S, Giandhari J, Marcelin AG, Calvez V, de Oliveira T, Dabis F, Pillay D, Gupta RK.
Journal: J Antimicrob Chemother., doi: 10.1093/jac/dky428:doi:10.1093/jac/dky428 (2018)

Journal Impact Factor (I.F.): 8
Number of citations (Google Scholar): 20

Abstract

OBJECTIVES The WHO recently recommended the use of a new first-line ART containing dolutegravir. We investigated the efficacy of NRTI backbones (tenofovir or abacavir with a cytosine analogue) in low- and middle-income countries where there is significant prior exposure to antiretrovirals and drug resistance to NRTIs.

METHODS: Within the treatment-as-prevention study in South Africa, we selected participants with available next-generation sequencing (NGS) data for the HIV-1 pol gene at trial entry; they were either ART initiators (n?=?1193) or already established on ART (n?=?94). NGS of the HIV-1 pol gene was carried out using MiSeq technology; reverse transcriptase drug resistance mutations (DRMs) were detected at 5% (DRM5%) and 20% (DRM20%) for all 1287 participants. Genotypic susceptibility was assessed using the Stanford HIVDB resistance interpretation algorithm.

RESULTS: NRTI DRM20% and DRM5% were detected among 5/1193 (0.4%) and 9/1193 (0.8%) of ART initiators, respectively. There was tenofovir exposure in 73/94 (77.7%) of those established on ART, with full susceptibility to abacavir in 57/94 (60.6%) and 56/94 (59.6%) for DRM20% and DRM5%, respectively, while 67/94 (71.3%) and 64/94 (68.1%) were fully susceptible to tenofovir, respectively. The differences between tenofovir and abacavir were not statistically significant at the 20% or 5% variant level (P?=?0.16 and 0.29, respectively). NGS detection of variants at the 5% level increased detection of K65R in both naive and treated groups. One of 607 integrase sequences carried a DRM20% (Q148R).

CONCLUSIONS: Dolutegravir with a cytosine analogue plus tenofovir or abacavir appears to have similar efficacy in South Africans naive to ART. NGS should be considered in HIV drug resistance surveillance.

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Citation: Derache A, Iwuji CC, Danaviah S, Giandhari J, Marcelin AG, Calvez V, de Oliveira T, Dabis F, Pillay D, Gupta RK. Predicted antiviral activity of tenofovir versus abacavir in combination with a cytosine analogue and the integrase inhibitor dolutegravir in HIV-1-infected South African patients initiating or failing first-line ART J Antimicrob Chemother., doi: 10.1093/jac/dky428:doi:10.1093/jac/dky428 (2018).